Using CheatSheets To Apply Best Practices

Python CheatSheet

Python CheatSheet


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1.1 Python Compact Coding

Name Comment
if … return if k == 0: return False
if… continue if index == icol: continue
return if.. else return val if i>0 else 0
multiple assignment l, r = 2, 3
assign with check of none a = b if b else 1
assignments l[1]=l[0]=0
swap values left, right = right, left
list Comprehensions [x*x for x in range(1, 1001)]
list Comprehensions l = [2, 3, 5]; [2*x for x in l if x>2]
use zip for a, b in zip(nums, nums[3:])
build a list dp = [1] + [0]*3
sum a subarray sum(nums[0:k])
sort list in descending order sorted(nums, reverse=True)
dictionary with defaults m = collections.defaultdict(lambda: 1)
loop with single statement while p.left: p = p.left
print multiple values print(x, y)
get both index and item for i, ch in enumerate(["a", "b", "c"]): print(i, ch)
mod negative (-2)%5

1.2 List

Name Comment
return all but last list[:-1]
The second last item list[-2] or list[~1]
map map(lambda x: str(x), [1, 2, 3])
create fixed size array l = [None] * 5
insert elements to head array.insert(0,var)
delete element by index del a[1]
list as stack item = l.pop()
sort in descending l = sorted([8, 2, 5], reverse=True)
sort by attribute l=sorted([(‘ebb’,12),(‘abc’,14)], key=lambda x: x[1])
in-place sort l.sort()
generate a-z map(chr, range(ord('a'), ord('z')+1))
map/reduce functools.reduce((lambda x, y: "%s %s" % (x, y)), l)
replace ith to jth list[i:j] = otherlist
combine two list list1 + list2
get sum sum(list)
unique list set(["Blah", "foo", "foo", 1, 1, 2, 3])
Insert to sorted list bisect.insort(l, 3)
Reverse a list l[::-1]

1.3 String

Name Comment
reverse string ‘hello world'[::-1]
array to string ‘ ‘.join([‘a’, ‘b’])
split string to array “hello, python”.split(“,”)
string to array list('abc')
format to 2 digits print "%02d" % (13)
find location of substring ‘abc’.find(‘d’)= (returns -1)
find location of substring ‘abc’.index(‘d’)= (raise exception)
capitalize string ‘hello world’.capitalize()
upper/lower string ‘aBc’.upper()=, ‘aBc’.lower()
count substring ‘2-5g-3-J’.count(‘-‘)
replace string ‘ab cd’.replace(‘ ‘, ”)
padd whitespace to the left ‘a’.ljust(10, ‘ ‘)
padd whitespace to the right ‘a’.rjust(10, ‘ ‘)
pad leading zero ‘101’.zfill(10)
string remove tailing ‘0’ ‘0023’.rstrip(‘0’)
string remove leading ‘0’ ‘0023’.lstrip(‘0’)
check if string represent integer ‘123’.isdigit()
check if string alphabetic ‘aBc’.isalpha()
Check if string alphanumeric ‘a1b’.isalnum()

1.4 Integer

Name Comment
max, min sys.maxsize, -sys.maxsize-1
min, max min(2, 3), max(5, 6, 2)
generate range for num in range(10,20)
get ascii ord('a'), chr(97)
print integer in binary "{0:b}".format(10)

1.5 Dict & Set

Name Comment
dict get first element m[m.keys()[0]]
intersection list(set(l1).intersection(set(l2)))
list to set set(list1)
remove from set s.remove(2)
remove the first from set s.pop()
sort dict by values sorted(dict1, key=dict1.get)
deep copy dict import copy; m2=copy.deepcopy(m1)

1.6 Bit Operator

Name Comment
mod x % 2
shift left x << 1 ; a << 2=
shift righ x >> 2
and x & y
complement ~x
xor x ^ y
power 2 ** 3
bool complement not x
binary format bin(5) (get 101)
count 1 inside binary bin(5).count('1')

1.7 File

Name Comment
Append file open("/tmp/test.txt", "ab").write("\ntest:")
Write file open("/tmp/test.txt", "wab").write("\ntest:")
Read files f.readlines()
Check file os.path.exists("/tmp/test.txt")

1.8 Math

Name Comment
sqrt import math; math.sqrt(5)
power import math; math.pow(2, 3)
random random.randint(1, 10) 1 and 10 included
eval string eval("2-11*2")

1.9 Queue/heapq

Name Comment
Initialize min heap heapq.heapify(q)
heappush a tuple q[]; heapq.heappush(q, (5, ‘ab’))=
pop print (heapq.heappop(q))
first item q[0]
print heapq print list(q)
create a queue from collections import deque; queue = deque([1,5,8,9])
append queue queue.append(7)
pop queue from head element = queue.popleft()

Review: Heap Problems


1.9.1 minheap & maxheap

import heapq

# initializing list
li = [5, 7, 9, 1, 3]

# using heapify to convert list into heap
heapq.heapify(li) # a minheap
heapq._heapify_max(li) # for a maxheap!

# printing created heap
print (list(li))

# using heappush() to push elements into heap
# pushes 4

# printing modified heap
print (list(li))

# using heappop() to pop smallest element
print (heapq.heappop(li))

print (list(li))

1.10 Code snippets

  • Initialize Linkedlist from array
def initListNodeFromArray(self, nums):
    head = ListNode(None)
    prev, p = head, head
    for num in nums:
        pre = p
        p.val = num
        q = ListNode(None) = q
        p = = None
    return head
  • Print linkedlist
def printListNode(self, head):
    while head:
        print("%d" % (head.val))
        head =

  • Print Trie Tree in level order
def printTrieTreeLevelOrder(self, node):
    if node.is_word:
        print("Node is a word")
    queue = []
    while len(queue) != 0:
        s = ''
        for i in range(len(queue)):
            node = queue[0]
            del queue[0]
            for child_key in node.children:
                s = '%s %s' % (s, child_key)
        if s != '':
            print 'print level children: %s' % (s)

  • python sort with customized cmp function: -1 first
nums = [3, 2, 6]
def myCompare(v1, v2):
    return -1
sorted_nums = sorted(nums, cmp=myCompare)
print nums # [3, 2, 6]
print sorted_nums # [6, 3, 2]

  • Initialize m*n matrix
col_count, row_count = 3, 2
matrix = [[None for j in range(col_count)] for i in range(row_count)]
print matrix

1.11 More Resources

License: Code is licensed under MIT License.


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