Using CheatSheets To Apply Best Practices

Python CheatSheet

Python CheatSheet

1.1 Python Compact Coding

Name Comment
if … return if k == 0: return False
if… continue if index == icol: continue
return if.. else return val if i>0 else 0
multiple assignment l, r = 2, 3
assign with check of none a = b if b else 1
assignments l[1]=l[0]=0
swap values left, right = right, left
list Comprehensions [x*x for x in range(1, 1001)]
list Comprehensions l = [2, 3, 5]; [2*x for x in l if x>2]
use zip for a, b in zip(nums, nums[3:])
build a list dp = [1] + [0]*3
sum a subarray sum(nums[0:k])
sort list in descending order sorted(nums, reverse=True)
dictionary with defaults m = collections.defaultdict(lambda: 1)
loop with single statement while p.left: p = p.left
print multiple values print(x, y)
get both index and item for i, ch in enumerate(["a", "b", "c"]): print(i, ch)
mod negative (-2)%5

1.2 Python Common Algorithms

Name Comment
bfs code/
trie tree code/

1.3 List

Name Comment
return all but last list[:-1]
The second last item list[-2] or list[~1]
map map(lambda x: str(x), [1, 2, 3])
create fixed size array l = [None] * 5
insert elements to head array.insert(0,var)
delete element by index del a[1]
list as stack item = l.pop()
sort in descending l = sorted([8, 2, 5], reverse=True)
sort by attribute l=sorted([(‘ebb’,12),(‘abc’,14)], key=lambda x: x[1])
in-place sort l.sort()
generate a-z map(chr, range(ord('a'), ord('z')+1))
map/reduce functools.reduce((lambda x, y: "%s %s" % (x, y)), l)
replace ith to jth list[i:j] = otherlist
combine two list list1 + list2
get sum sum(list)
unique list set(["Blah", "foo", "foo", 1, 1, 2, 3])
Insert to sorted list bisect.insort(l, 3)
Reverse a list l[::-1]

1.4 String

Name Comment
reverse string 'hello world'[::-1]
array to string ' '.join(['a', 'b'])
split string to array "hello, python".split(",")
string to array list('abc')
format to 2 digits print "%02d" % (13)
capitalize string 'hello world'.capitalize()
upper/lower string 'aBc'.upper(), 'aBc'.lower()
count substring '2-5g-3-J'.count('-')
pad leading zero '101'.zfill(10)
string remove tailing=’0′ '0023'.rstrip('0')
string remove leading=’0′ '0023'.lstrip('0')
check if string represent integer '123'.isdigit()
check if string alphabetic 'aBc'.isalpha()
Check if string alphanumeric 'a1b'.isalnum()
find location of substring ‘abc’.find(‘d’)= (returns -1)
find location of substring ‘abc’.index(‘d’)= (raise exception)
replace string ‘ab cd’.replace(‘',”)
padd whitespace to the left ‘a’.ljust(10,=’=’)
padd whitespace to the right ‘a’.rjust(10,=’=’)

1.5 Integer

Name Comment
max, min sys.maxsize, -sys.maxsize-1
min, max min(2, 3), max(5, 6, 2)
generate range for num in range(10,20)
get ascii ord('a'), chr(97)
print integer in binary "{0:b}".format(10)

1.6 Dict & Set

Name Comment
dict get first element m[m.keys()[0]]
intersection list(set(l1).intersection(set(l2)))
list to set set(list1)
remove from set s.remove(2)
remove the first from set s.pop()
sort dict by values sorted(dict1, key=dict1.get)
deep copy dict import copy; m2=copy.deepcopy(m1)

1.7 Bit Operator

Name Comment
mod x % 2
shift left x << 1 ; a << 2=
shift righ x >> 2
and x & y
complement ~x
xor x ^ y
power 2 ** 3
bool complement not x
binary format bin(5) (get 101)
count 1 inside binary bin(5).count('1')

1.8 File

Name Comment
Append file open("/tmp/test.txt", "ab").write("\ntest:")
Write file open("/tmp/test.txt", "wab").write("\ntest:")
Read files f.readlines()
Check file os.path.exists("/tmp/test.txt")

1.9 Math

Name Comment
sqrt import math; math.sqrt(5)
power import math; math.pow(2, 3)
random random.randint(1, 10) 1 and 10 included
eval string eval("2-11*2")

1.10 Networking

Name Comment
Start a simple HTTP server python -m SimpleHTTPServer <port_number>

1.11 Queue/heapq

Name Comment
Initialize min heap heapq.heapify(q)
heappush a tuple q[]; heapq.heappush(q, (5, ‘ab’))=
pop print (heapq.heappop(q))
first item q[0]
print heapq print list(q)
create a queue from collections import deque; queue = deque([1,5,8,9])
append queue queue.append(7)
pop queue from head element = queue.popleft()

Review: Heap Problems


1.11.1 minheap & maxheap

import heapq

# initializing list
li = [5, 7, 9, 1, 3]

# using heapify to convert list into heap
heapq.heapify(li) # a minheap
heapq._heapify_max(li) # for a maxheap!

# printing created heap
print (list(li))

# using heappush() to push elements into heap
# pushes 4

# printing modified heap
print (list(li))

# using heappop() to pop smallest element
print (heapq.heappop(li))

print (list(li))

1.12 Code snippets

  • Initialize Linkedlist from array
def initListNodeFromArray(self, nums):
    head = ListNode(None)
    prev, p = head, head
    for num in nums:
        pre = p
        p.val = num
        q = ListNode(None) = q
        p = = None
    return head
  • Print linkedlist
def printListNode(self, head):
    while head:
        print("%d" % (head.val))
        head =

  • Print Trie Tree in level order
def printTrieTreeLevelOrder(self, node):
    if node.is_word:
        print("Node is a word")
    queue = []
    while len(queue) != 0:
        s = ''
        for i in range(len(queue)):
            node = queue[0]
            del queue[0]
            for child_key in node.children:
                s = '%s %s' % (s, child_key)
        if s != '':
            print 'print level children: %s' % (s)

  • python sort with customized cmp function: -1 first
nums = [3, 2, 6]
def myCompare(v1, v2):
    return -1
sorted_nums = sorted(nums, cmp=myCompare)
print nums # [3, 2, 6]
print sorted_nums # [6, 3, 2]

  • Initialize m*n matrix
col_count, row_count = 3, 2
matrix = [[None for j in range(col_count)] for i in range(row_count)]
print matrix

1.13 More Resources

License: Code is licensed under MIT License.


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