Using CheatSheets To Apply Best Practices

Python Free CheatSheet

Python Free CheatSheet

1.1 Python Compact Coding

Name Comment
Return if.. else return val if i>0 else 0
Multiple assignment l, r = 2, 3
Assign with check of none a = b if b else 1
Assignments l[1]=l[0]=0
Swap values left, right = right, left
List Comprehensions [x*x for x in range(1, 1001)]
List Comprehensions l = [2, 3, 5]; [2*x for x in l if x>2]
Use zip for a, b in zip(nums, nums[3:])
Build a list dp = [1] + [0]*3
Change interger to string in binary bin(num), f'{num:b}', "{0:b}".format(num)
Sum a subarray sum(nums[0:k])
Sort list in descending order sorted(nums, reverse=True)
Dictionary with defaults m = collections.defaultdict(lambda: 1)
Loop with single statement while p.left: p = p.left
Print multiple values print(x, y)
Get both index and item for i, ch in enumerate(["a", "b", "c"]): print(i, ch)
Mod negative (-2)%5
Compare values if 0<=i<n and 0<=j<m and grid[i][j]
if … return if k == 0: return False
if… continue if index == icol: continue
List comprehensive areas = [dfs(i, j) for i in range(m) for j in range(n) if grid[i][j]]
Python assertion assert [1,2]==[1,2]

1.2 Python Advanced: Concepts & Internals

Name Comment
Python Global Interpreter Lock For Garbage Collection. A mutex controls of the global Python interpreter
Python tuples VS lists tuple is immutable
Python nonlocal VS global Github: cheatsheet-python-A4/code/
Python For VS While Loops The for statement is used to iterate over the elements of a sequence VS os.system In Linux, launch processes through shell or os.execvp
single quote VS double quote Generally double quotes for string; single quotes for regexp, dict keys, or SQL
Common reasons of python memory leak reference cycles, underly libaries/C extensions, lingering large objects not released
Example: Python cycle reference Github: cheatsheet-python-A4/code/
Passing function as an argument in Python Github: cheatsheet-python-A4/code/
lambda/an anonymous function  
Why no support for multi-line comments Link: Python Multi-line Comments
Python callable print(callable(1)), print(callable(lambda: 1))
Python long  
Python Constants vs Literals  
How functools.lrucache works  
Python yield  
Reference Link: Python Design and History FAQ

1.3 List & Tuples

Name Comment
Create a fixed size array [None]*5
Create a fixed size matrix/2D array [[sys.maxsize for j in range(2)] for i in range(3)]
Flatten 2D array into 1D array [a for r in matrix for a in r]
Iterate over a list for v in l:
Iterate over a list with index+val for i, v in enumerate(l):
zip two lists as one l = sorted(zip(nums, range(len(nums))))
Convert int array to a string ' '.join([str(v) for v in [1, 2,3,4]])
Extact columns from multi-dimensional array [row[1] for row in l]
Sort in descending l=sorted([8, 2, 5], reverse=True)
Sort list by a lambda key l=sorted([(‘ebb’,12),(‘abc’,14)], key=lambda x: x[1])
Sort list by a function sorted(logs, key=getKey), LeetCode: Reorder Data in Log Files
In-place sort l.sort()
Find the index of one item [1,2,5,3].index(2)
Return all but last list[:-1]
The second last item list[-2] or list[~1]
Generate a-z map(chr, range(ord('a'), ord('z')+1))
Convert from ascii to character chr(ord('a'))
Reverse a list ["ab", "cd", "ef"][::-1]
map map(lambda x: str(x), [1, 2, 3])
Copy a range to another range nums1[:k+1] = nums2[:j+1]
append an element array.append(var)
insert elements to head array.insert(0,var)
delete element by index del a[1]
list as stack item = l.pop()
map/reduce functools.reduce((lambda x, y: "%s %s" % (x, y)), l)
replace ith to jth list[i:j] = otherlist
combine two list list1 + list2
get sum sum(list)
unique list set(["Blah", "foo", "foo", 1, 1, 2, 3])
Insert to sorted list bisect.insort(l, 3)
Reverse a list l[::-1]
Print zip array print(list(zip(l1, l2)))
Reference Link: Lists and Tuples in Python

1.4 String

Name Comment
Reverse string ‘hello world'[::-1]
Array to string ‘ ‘.join([‘a’, ‘b’])
Integer array to string ‘ ‘.join([str(v) for v in [1, 2, 3]])
Split string to array “hello, python”.split(“,”)
String to array list('abc')
Format to 2 digits print "%02d" % (13)
Capitalize string ‘hello world’.capitalize()
Upper/lower string ‘aBc’.upper(), ‘aBc’.lower()
Check if string represent integer ‘123’.isdigit()
Check if string alphabetic ‘aBc’.isalpha()
Check if string alphanumeric ‘a1b’.isalnum()
Count substring ‘2-5g-3-J’.count(‘-‘)
Remove tailing ‘0’ ‘0023’.rstrip(‘0’)
Remove leading ‘0’ ‘0023’.lstrip(‘0’)
Trip a string ‘ Hello ‘.strip()
Find location of substring ‘abc’.find(‘d’)= (returns -1)
Find location of substring ‘abc’.index(‘d’)= (raise exception)
Check whether substring “el” in “hello world”
Replace string ‘ab cd’.replace(‘',”)
Padding leading zero ‘101’.zfill(10)
Padding whitespace to the left ‘a’.ljust(10,’=’)
Padding whitespace to the right ‘a’.rjust(10,’=’)
Format string “%s,%d,%s” % (“2012”, 12, “12”)

1.5 Stack & Queue

Name Comment
Python deque as a stack s = collections.deque(), s.append(x), s.pop(), s[-1]
Python deque as a queue s = collections.deque(), s.append(x), s.popleft(), s[0]
Implement a stack in Python Link: Stack in Python. Leverage: list, collections.deque or queue.LifoQueue

1.6 Python Basic

Name Comment
Install python3 in Ubuntu add-apt-repository ppa:deadsnakes/ppa, apt install python3.7
Python constants  
Python nested function Github: cheatsheet-python-A4/code/
Run python snippet from shell python -c ‘import sys; print(sys.getdefaultencoding())’
What’s Python Literals  
List all methods of a python object dir(obj)
How to check the type of one object? Use type function, e.g, type(enumerate([1, 2, 3]))

1.7 Common Errors

Name Comment
Error: i++ OK: i += 1
Error: b=true OK: b=True
Error: i<len(A) && j<len(B): OK: i<len(A) and j<len(B):
Error: for i>=0 and j>=0: OK: while i>=0 and j>=0:
Error: ! f OK: not f
NameError: name ‘List’ is not defined from typing import List
Python float with high resolution  

1.8 Pip – Python Package Management

Name Comment
Check on installed python package pip show simplejson
Search a package pip search simplejson
Install and uninstall a package pip install simplejson, pip uninstall simplejon
Install package with a specific version pip install flake8==2.0
Show installation folder of a module module.__file__, flask.__file__
Check on-line help for a module help(module)
  pip install -U simplejon
  pip install -i flask

1.9 Integer

Name Comment
max, min sys.maxsize, -sys.maxsize-1
min, max min(2, 3), max(5, 6, 2)
min with customized comparision min(a, b, key=lambda x: x*x-2*x+1)
generate range for num in range(10,20)
get ascii ord('a'), chr(97)
print integer in binary “{0:b}”.format(10)

1.10 Dict/Hashmap & Set

Name Comment
dict get first element m[m.keys()[0]]
get by key with default value m.get(x, -1)
Dictionary with defaults m = collections.defaultdict(lambda: 1)
Dictionary with tuple defaults d=collections.defaultdict(lambda: (0, 0))), d[0, 1]=(2, 3)
Use array as key in dictionary Convert array to tuple: m[tuple(l)]=3
Check whether key in hashmap if k in m
Loop dictionary by keys for k in m
Loop dictionary for k,v in m.items(), not for k,v in enumerate(m)
Intersection of two sets list(set(l1).intersection(set(l2)))
List to set set(list1)
Remove from set s.remove(2)
Deep copy dict import copy; m2=copy.deepcopy(m1)
Remove the first from set s.pop()
Sort dict by values sorted(dict1, key=dict1.get)
Convert a str to a dict eval("{\"createtime\":\"2013-07-16\"}")
Delete an element from a dict del d[key]

1.11 Bit Operator

Name Comment
mod x % 2
shift left x << 1; a << 2
shift righ x >> 2
and x & y
complement ~x
xor x ^ y
power 2 ** 3
bool complement not x
binary format bin(5) (get 101)
count 1 inside binary bin(5).count('1')

1.12 File

Name Comment
Append file open("/tmp/test.txt", "ab").write("\ntest:")
Write file open("/tmp/test.txt", "wab").write("\ntest:")
Read files f.readlines()
Check file os.path.exists("/tmp/test.txt")
Reference Github: cheatsheet-python-A4/code/

1.13 Math

Name Comment
sqrt import math; math.sqrt(5)
power import math; math.pow(2, 3)
log import math; math.log(5, 2), log2(5)
random random.randint(1, 10) 1 and 10 included
eval string eval("2-11*2")

1.14 Networking

Name Comment
Send http REST call pip install requests; r = requests.get(‘https://XX/XX’, auth=(‘user’, ‘pass’))
Start a simple HTTP server python -m SimpleHTTPServer <port_number>

1.15 Python Interoperate

Name Comment
Run shell command output =[“ls”, “-lt”, “tmp“], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
Get shell command output output.stdout.decode('utf-8').split('\n')
Get shell return code output.returncode, output.check_returncode()
Python trap linux signal Github: cheatsheet-python-A4/code/

1.16 Queue/heapq

Name Comment
Initialize min heap heapq.heapify(q)
heappush a tuple q=[]; heapq.heappush(q, (5, ‘ab’))
pop print (heapq.heappop(q))
first item q[0]
print heapq print list(q)
create a queue from collections import deque; queue = deque([1,5,8,9])
append queue queue.append(7)
pop queue from head element = queue.popleft()
Reference Link: Python Heapq

1.16.1 minheap & maxheap

import heapq

# initializing list
li = [5, 7, 9, 1, 3]

# using heapify to convert list into heap
heapq.heapify(li) # a minheap
heapq._heapify_max(li) # for a maxheap!

# printing created heap
print (list(li))

# using heappush() to push elements into heap
# pushes 4

# printing modified heap
print (list(li))

# using heappop() to pop smallest element
print (heapq.heappop(li))

print (list(li))

1.17 Code snippets

  • Initialize Linkedlist from array
def initListNodeFromArray(self, nums):
    head = ListNode(None)
    prev, p = head, head
    for num in nums:
        pre = p
        p.val = num
        q = ListNode(None) = q
        p = = None
    return head
  • Print linkedlist
def printListNode(self, head):
    while head:
        print("%d" % (head.val))
        head =

  • Print Trie Tree in level order
def printTrieTreeLevelOrder(self, node):
    if node.is_word:
        print("Node is a word")
    queue = []
    while len(queue) != 0:
        s = ''
        for i in range(len(queue)):
            node = queue[0]
            del queue[0]
            for child_key in node.children:
                s = '%s %s' % (s, child_key)
        if s != '':
            print 'print level children: %s' % (s)

  • python sort with customized cmp function: -1 first
nums = [3, 2, 6]
def myCompare(v1, v2):
    return -1
sorted_nums = sorted(nums, cmp=myCompare)
print nums # [3, 2, 6]
print sorted_nums # [6, 3, 2]

  • Initialize m*n matrix
col_count, row_count = 3, 2
matrix = [[None for j in range(col_count)] for i in range(row_count)]
print matrix

1.19 More Resources

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