Using CheatSheets To Apply Best Practices

CheatSheet: Linux Files

CheatSheet: Linux Files

1.1 Check file

Name Comment
Show file content cat /etc/hosts
Show file content with line numbers cat -n /etc/hosts
Show with line numbers, excluding blank lines cat -b /etc/hosts
Show the first 3 lines head -n3 /etc/hosts
Show the first 20 bytes head -c20 /etc/hosts
Show the last 3 lines tail -n3 /etc/hosts
Show the last 20 bytes tail -c20 /etc/hosts
Keep tailing log file tail -f /var/log/system.log, taif /var/log/system.log
Show file starting from 4th line more +4 /etc/hosts
Show the 4th line sed -n '4p' /etc/hosts
Show 4th, 5th, 7th and 8th lines sed -n '4,5p;7,8p' /etc/hosts
Show matched string with 3 lines before and after grep -C 3 "" /etc/hosts
For table-like file, show 2nd column awk -F'\t' '{print $2}' /etc/hosts
For table-like file, swap 1st and 2nd columns awk -F'\t' '{print $2,$1}' /etc/hosts
Find file encoding file -i /var/log/corecaptured.log

1.2 Find file

Name Summary
Basic find find /home/mac/<myfolder> -name “my*.log”
Find files with two patterns find . -iname “my*.log” -o -iname “my*.txt”
Find folder old than 3 days find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -ctime +3
Find files changed within 60 minutes find /var/log -mmin 60 -type f
Find with ls details find . \( -iname \) -ls
Find files filtered by size find /var/log -type f -size +50k -size -100k
Find files older than another file find . -newer /tmp/file
Find files while excluding patterns find . -name "*.log" -prune -o -name ".git" -prune -o -type f -print0

1.3 Find and delete

Name Summary
Find and delete with given names find . -name Thumbs.db -delete
Recursively delete empty folders find . -type d -empty -delete
Delete files haven’t been updated in 5 days find . -mtime +5 -exec rm {} \;
Delete folders created older than 5 days find . -name "npm-*" -type d -ctime +2 -exec rm -rf {} +

1.4 Watch file

Name Comment
Show file changes watch -d -n 1 stat /var/log/message
Keep tailing log files tail -f /var/log/system.log, taif /var/log/system.log

1.5 Copy file

Name Comment
Copy one file cp /etc/hosts /tmp/hosts
Copy one folder cp -r /usr/local/bin/ /tmp/bin/
Copy for backup cp /tmp/hosts{,.bak}, ls -lth /tmp/hosts*
Create a copy but ask confirmation for overwrite cp -i ~/foo.txt /tmp/foo.txt
Create a copy for backup with timstamp as suffix cp myfile.txt{,."$(date +%Y%m%d-%H%M%S)"}
Copy files by checking timestamp rsync -av $src_dir $dest_dir
Copy files by comparing checksum rsync -avc $src_dir $dest_dir

1.6 Watch file

Name Command
Remove a file or folder rm -rf <path>
Remove a file or an empty folder rm -f <path>
Remove a file by inode find <path> -inum 5555 -exec rm -i '{}' \;

1.7 Diff File

Name Command
Diff two files diff <file1> <file2>
Ignore uppercase and lowercase diff -i <file1> <file2>
Diff output of two commands diff <(date) <(somecommand)
Generate patch from two files diff -Naur <file1> <file2> > diff.patch
Diff two directories diff -r <dir1> <dir2>
Show only brief summary diff -r --brief <dir1> <dir2>

1.8 Make directory

Name Comment
Make directory. Report error, if existing mkdir foo
Make directory. Avoid reporting error, if existing mkdir -p foo
Make directory and its parents mkdir -p foo/bar/dir1
Make directories with the hierachy mkdir -p foo/{bar,bad/{dir1,dir2}}, tree foo

1.9 More Resources

License: Code is licendiff under MIT License.

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